AIR FILTRATION – BLAST VALVES
BLAST VALVES : WHY THEY ARE IMPORTANT AND HOW THEY WORK
A blast valve is used to protect a shelter, such as a fallout shelter or bunker, from the effects of sudden outside air pressure changes. A nuclear weapon creates a shock wave, which may produce sudden pressure changes of more than an atmosphere (about 15 pounds per square inch) even several miles or kilometers from the detonation point. After the shock wave passes, a sudden negative pressure follows.
If such pressure waves enter a shelter, they will likely do substantial harm to occupants and equipment. A blast valve is placed in air intake/exhaust pipes. In normal conditions the blast valves remain open, but the spring loaded valves automatically close when strong pressure is applied in either direction.
Our blast valve has an entry diameter of 6 with a larger center section. Within the center section is a disk mounted on an axle, with weak springs that keep it centered, away from both entries. Pressure displaces the disk along the axle, until it plugs one entry or the other. After the blast, the springs return the disk to the center, re-opening the valve.
TEDA ACTIVATED CARBON
Rising S uses only the highest quality materials in all of our products and air filtration is no exception. We use a combination of HEPA & ULPA filters surrounded by military grade activated TEDA carbon.
ACTIVATED TEDA CARBON
TEDA (triethylene di-amine) carbon filter media has a high affinity for the adsorption, chelation and retention of the various species of Iodine. This is the ONLY form of activated carbon that the US military uses in their NBC filters and masks.
ASZM-TEDA is Calgon Carbon’s military-use impregnated carbon. It was designed to be a chrome-free replacement of ASC carbon used by the military beginning in WWII. It is also used in the Industrial environment for first responder masks designed to protect against cyanide, cyanogens chloride (CK), and a variety of other harmful gases. This versatile carbon is designed to protect against many of the chemical weapons the government lists as potential homeland threats.
1. Low ash coal-based carbon substrate
2. No chromium in formulation
3. Tailored towards military and industrial applications: Military respirator – chemical warfare agents building protective industrial respirator – first responder (CBRN)
4. Industry leading impregnation process
5. Controlled particle size distribution Benefits
6. Dependable performance under low and high humidity conditions
7. Disposal issues minimize
8. Need for multiple carbons minimized
9. Consistent quality, reduced dust, no detectable release of substances during normal use
10. Reduced breathing resistance and improved comfort.
Activated Carbon is a form of carbon (derived for charcoal) that is processed to have small, low-volume pores that increases the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Due to its high degree of microporosity, a single gram of activated carbon has a surface area that exceeds 500 m2, as determined by adsorption isotherms of carbon dioxide gas at room temperature. An activation level sufficient for useful application may be attained solely from high surface area; however, further chemical treatment often enhances adsorption properties.
CUTTING EDGE NBC AIR FILTRATION SOLUTIONS
Our NBC air filtration units are the very best the market has to offer. We’ve combined the most effective HEPA and ULPA filters with the incredible force of military-grade activated TEDA carbon. The majority of air filtration systems use only one component, such as a stand alone HEPA filter, or ULPA filter. Rising S Bunkers combine all three filters together to form the best possible NBC Air Filtration system. This system will filter 99.99 % of the airs contaminates and toxins from your breathable air. Nuclear, chemical, biological – it makes no difference, this system can handle it.
In our NBC Air Filtration units, air has to pass through three forms of air filters. The three components of our air filtration units are highly effective at filtering out different contaminates in the air. When placed within our NBC air filtration system, they work together to filter a wide range of contaminates from the air. Air passes through the first HEPA filter, then through the ULPA Filter, and through another HEPA filter. Any contaminate that manages to pass through the HEPA filters and the ULPA filters will get absorbed into the TEDA activated carbon filter. Here’s what our system looks like inside.
Learn More about the TEDA carbon here.
Learn more about HEPA and ULPA filters here.
HEPA AND ULPA FILTERS
HEPA and ULPA Filters are two components of our NBC filtration system. Many air filtration systems use HEPA and ULPA Filters as a stand alone filtration system. Rising S Bunkers uses HEPA & ULPA Filters along with TEDA carbon to create the best solution for your NBC filtration needs.
Cutting Edge NBC Air Filtration Solutions
HEPA stands for High Efficiency Particulate Air filter. A HEPA filter is a type of air filter meeting certain standards of efficiency such as those set by the United States Department of Energy. To qualify as HEPA by US government standards, an air filter must remove (from the air that passes through) 99.97% of particles that have a size of 0.3 micrometres. (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASME AG-1a–2004, “Addenda to ASME AG-1–2003 Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment”, 2004)
HEPA filters are composed of a mat of randomly arranged fibers. The fibers are typically composed of fiberglass and possess diameters between 0.5 and 2.0 micrometers. Key factors affecting function are fiber diameter, filter thickness, and face velocity. The air space between HEPA filter fibers is much greater than 0.3 μm. The common assumption that a HEPA filter acts like a sieve where particles smaller than the largest opening can pass through is incorrect. Unlike membrane filters at this pore size, where particles as wide as the largest opening or distance between fibers cannot pass in between them at all, HEPA filters are designed to target much smaller pollutants and particles. These particles are trapped (they stick to a fiber) through a combination of the following three mechanisms:
1. Interception, where particles following a line of flow in the air stream come within one radius of a fiber and adhere to it.
2. Impaction, where larger particles are unable to avoid fibers by following the curving contours of the air stream and are forced to embed in one of them directly; this effect increases with diminishing fiber separation and higher air flow velocity.
3. Diffusion, an enhancing mechanism that is a result of the collision with gas molecules by the smallest particles, especially those below 0.1 µm in diameter, which are thereby impeded and delayed in their path through the filter; this behavior is similar to Brownian motion and raises the probability that a particle will be stopped by either of the two mechanisms above; it becomes dominant at lower air flow velocities. Diffusion predominates below the 0.1 μm diameter particle size. Impaction and interception predominate above 0.4 μm. In between, near the most penetrating particle size (MPPS) 0.3 μm, both diffusion and interception are comparatively inefficient. Because this is the weakest point in the filter’s performance, the HEPA specifications use the retention of these particles to classify the filter.
Lastly, it is important to note that HEPA filters are designed to arrest very fine particles effectively, but they do not filter out gasses and odor molecules. Circumstances requiring filtration of volatile organic compounds, chemical vapors, cigarette, pet, and/or flatulence odors call for the use of an activated carbon (charcoal) filter instead of or in addition to a HEPA filter.
ULPA is an acronym for “ultra-low penetration air” Or “ultra-low particulate air”. A ULPA filter can remove from the air at least 99.999% of dust, pollen, mold, bacteria and any airborne particles with a size of 120 nanometres (0.12 micron) or larger. Even anthrax (which has one of the smallest particulates among the toxins) can’t pass through a ULPA filter.
WHY DOES IT MATTER IF ANTHRAX CAN BE FILTERED BY YOUR AIR FILTRATION SYSTEM?
The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, also known as Amerithrax from its Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) case name, occurred over the course of several weeks beginning on Tuesday, September 18, 2001, one week after the September 11 attacks. Letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to several news media offices and two Democratic U.S. Senators, killing five people and infecting 17 others. According to the FBI, the ensuing investigation became “one of the largest and most complex in the history of law enforcement”.
Anthrax is an acute disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus Anthracis.
Thousands of anthrax spores are required for human infection, of which all can fit in the area of a single pinhead.
Anthrax spores can be produced in vitro and used as a biological weapon. Anthrax does not spread directly from one infected animal or person to another; it is spread by spores. These spores can be transported by clothing or shoes. The body of an animal that had active anthrax at the time of death can also be a source of anthrax spores.
Until the twentieth century, anthrax infections killed hundreds of thousands of animals and people worldwide each year. French scientist Louis Pasteur developed the first effective vaccine for anthrax in 1881. Thanks to over a century of animal vaccination programs, sterilization of raw animal waste materials, and anthrax eradication programs in North America, Australia, New Zealand, Russia, Europe, and parts of Africa and Asia, anthrax infection is now relatively rare in domestic animals (with only a few dozen cases reported each year). Anthrax is especially rare in dogs and cats, as is evidenced by a single reported case in the USA in 2001.
Anthrax typically does not cause disease in carnivores and scavengers, even when these animals consume anthrax-infected carcasses. Anthrax outbreaks do occur in some wild animal populations with some regularity. The disease is more common in countries without widespread veterinary or human public health programs. In the 21st century, anthrax is still a problem in less developed countries. An outbreak of anthrax in humans who had eaten meat from a dead caribou was reported in Cagayan province in the Philippines in early 2010, with over 400 cases of illness and at least two fatalities.
Bacillus anthracis bacterial spores are soil-borne. Because of their long lifespan, spores are present globally and remain at the burial sites of animals killed by anthrax for many decades. Disturbed grave sites of infected animals have caused reinfection over 70 years after the animal’s interment.
HEPA & ULPA Filters are some of the best components for creating an effective NBC filtration system. Along with using TEDA carbon technology, NBC Filtrations System from Rising S Bunkers has a quality that cannot be beat.
AIR FILTRATION – HOME
Looking for a nbc air filtration system? Our underground bunker filters are second to none.
CUTTING EDGE NBC AIR FILTRATION SOLUTIONS
An NBC Fresh Air System built by Rising S Company offers you a “Peace Of Mind In Uncertain Times”.How it works:
Outside air is pulled into the ventilation duct and first enters the ULPA (Ultra Low Penetration Air) filter. An ULPA filter can remove from the air at least 99.999% of dust, pollen, mold, bacteria and any airborne particles with a size of 120 nanometers (0.12 micron) or larger. This will include nuclear fallout dust particles, infection and contamination by airborne microorganisms such as molds and spores.
THE NEXT STEP TO CLEAN BREATHABLE AIR:
The Still contaminated air now enters an Activated Charcoal Filter containing 100% ASZM-TEDA™ Carbon which is Calgon Carbon’s military-use impregnated carbon. It is also used in the industrial environment for first responder masks designed to protect against cyanide, cyanogens chloride (CK), and a variety of other harmful gases. 100% ASZM-TEDA Carbon is the only grade of carbon that meets United States Military specifications. ASZM-TEDA™ is named for its impregnates: copper (A), silver (S), zinc (Z), molybdenum (M), and triethylenediamine (TEDA). This versatile carbon is designed to protect against many of the chemical weapons the government lists as potential homeland threats such as Nerve Agents, Vesicants (Blister Agents) and Blood/Choking Agents. Air now enters your 12 volt ventilation blower and enters your already clean environment and is ready to enter the lungs of you and your loved ones. We chose to use 12 Volt DC Power because it is considered more stable than our current electrical grid and will still offer you protection even when the grid is down as well as offer quiet operation in enclosed spaces. Our standard system offers enough fresh air for up to 15 adult occupants per Israeli Standards. Custom NBC systems can be built to accomodate as many people as necessary.